Empowering Employees: A Legal Analysis of California’s “Right to Disconnect” Legislation

Empowering Employees: A Legal Analysis of California’s “Right to Disconnect” Legislation

Empowering Employees: A Legal Analysis of California’s “Right to Disconnect” Legislation



In the dynamic realm of employment law, California continues to spearhead progressive initiatives aimed at fortifying the rights of workers. Assembly Bill 2751, championed by Assemblymember Matt Haney of San Francisco, stands as a pioneering effort to institute a “right to disconnect” for employees, shielding them from unwarranted encroachments into their personal time by employers.

Defining the “Right to Disconnect”

At its core, AB 2751 seeks to demarcate distinct boundaries between professional obligations and personal life, addressing the pervasive challenge posed by the ubiquitous presence of technology in the contemporary workplace. The bill proposes an amendment to the California Labor Code, introducing Section 1198.2 to enshrine the right to disconnect into state law.

Establishing Clear Boundaries

Central to AB 2751 is the acknowledgment that employees should not be beholden to work-related demands beyond their designated working hours. The legislation mandates that both public and private employers craft and implement comprehensive workplace policies, affording employees the explicit right to disregard communications from their employer during nonworking hours, barring emergencies or unforeseen scheduling alterations.

Negotiating Nonworking Hours

Employers are tasked with delineating nonworking hours through formal written agreements with their employees, establishing a framework for communication expectations outside of standard work hours. This provision serves to mitigate ambiguity and foster mutual understanding regarding employees’ availability during their personal time.

Exceptional Circumstances

While AB 2751 upholds the principle of the right to disconnect, it recognizes the occasional necessity for employer-employee communication outside of regular working hours. The bill outlines two narrowly defined exceptions, permitting employers to contact employees in cases of genuine emergencies or exigent scheduling modifications occurring within 24 hours of a scheduled shift.

Enforcement Mechanisms

AB 2751 incorporates robust enforcement mechanisms to ensure adherence to the right to disconnect. Employers found in repeated violation of this right would face penalties, with employees empowered to lodge complaints with the California Labor Commissioner. Such violations could result in significant civil penalties, underscoring the gravity with which the state regards the protection of employees’ personal time.

Navigating Opposition and Support

Despite its noble intent, AB 2751 has encountered opposition from certain quarters, particularly within startup communities and industries reliant on continuous operations. Critics express apprehensions regarding potential impacts on productivity and operational flexibility. However, proponents contend that prioritizing employee well-being ultimately fosters a more resilient and productive workforce over the long term.

Implications and Future Outlook

As AB 2751 advances through the legislative process, stakeholders will scrutinize its provisions and ramifications for employers and employees alike. Should the bill garner sufficient support and receive gubernatorial approval, it will undoubtedly reshape employment practices in California, serving as a model for other jurisdictions seeking to prioritize work-life balance and safeguard employee rights.


Assembly Bill 2751 represents a landmark endeavor to empower employees and reclaim autonomy over their personal time in the face of incessant technological encroachment. By codifying the right to disconnect into law, California reaffirms its commitment to fostering a healthy work-life balance and ensuring that the exigencies of the modern workplace do not infringe upon the well-being of its workforce.

Navigating the Boundaries of Global Anti-Competitive Practices: The Case of Taylor Swift’s ASEAN Concert Exclusivity

Navigating the Boundaries of Global Anti-Competitive Practices: The Case of Taylor Swift’s ASEAN Concert Exclusivity

Navigating the Boundaries of Global Anti-Competitive Practices: The Case of Taylor Swift’s ASEAN Concert Exclusivity



In a surprising revelation that has sparked widespread discussion among fans, promoters, and legal experts alike, Thailand’s Prime Minister Srettha Thavisin disclosed that Anschutz Entertainment Group (AEG), a major concert promoter, has entered into an agreement with global pop superstar Taylor Swift. This agreement purportedly restricts Swift’s performances to Singapore exclusively within the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) region. This situation provides a unique lens through which to examine the principles of anti-competitive practices on a global scale, especially in the context of entertainment and contractual agreements between artists, promoters, and host countries.

The Agreement: An Overview

According to Prime Minister Thavisin, AEG has been informed that Swift’s agreement limits her ASEAN region concerts to Singapore, precluding potential performances in other ASEAN countries, including Thailand. This move has not only disappointed Swift’s fans across Southeast Asia but has also raised questions about the nature of such exclusivity agreements and their implications on competition within the entertainment industry.

Global Anti-Competitive Principles

At its core, anti-competitive behaviour refers to actions that prevent or reduce competition in a market. These actions can range from monopolistic practices to collusion and exclusive agreements that unfairly limit consumer choices or set barriers to entry for other competitors. Globally, anti-competitive practices are governed by a variety of laws and regulations, which can vary significantly from one jurisdiction to another. However, the underlying principle remains the same: to ensure fair competition and prevent monopolies or oligopolies that can harm consumers and the economy.

Application to the Entertainment Industry

In the entertainment industry, exclusivity agreements are not uncommon. Artists, promoters, and venues often enter into contracts that limit performances to certain areas, times, or conditions to maximize profits, manage schedules, and control the brand. However, when such agreements cross the line into preventing competition or limiting consumer access to entertainment, they can potentially be viewed as anti-competitive.

The Singapore Exclusivity: An Anti-Competitive Practice?

The case of Taylor Swift’s agreement to perform exclusively in Singapore within the ASEAN region raises several questions regarding its nature as an anti-competitive practice. First, it is crucial to determine the intent and effect of this agreement:


  1. Market Power and Competition: Does this exclusivity agreement leverage market power in a way that significantly prevents other ASEAN countries from hosting similar large-scale events, thereby reducing competition?
  2. Consumer Choice: Is consumer choice unfairly restricted, given that fans in other ASEAN countries are unable to attend Swift’s concerts within their region unless they travel to Singapore?
  3. Regulatory Scrutiny: Would this agreement withstand scrutiny under the respective anti-competitive laws of ASEAN countries or under broader international trade and competition policies?


It should be noted that the ASEAN Competition Action Plan (ACAP) 2025 is a roadmap for developing regional guidelines on competition policy, but it’s more about cooperation and capacity building than enforcing uniform laws across member countries.

Potential Justifications

On the flip side, several factors could justify the exclusivity agreement from a business perspective:

  1. Logistical and Operational Constraints: Limiting the tour to specific locations can be a strategic decision based on logistical, financial, and operational considerations.
  2. Market Demand and Strategic Positioning: Singapore might have been chosen due to its strategic location, infrastructure, and market demand, which are critical for the success of high-profile concerts.


The case of Taylor Swift’s exclusive concert agreement in Singapore presents a complex scenario that intersects with global principles of anti-competitive practices. While the intent behind such agreements is often rooted in legitimate business considerations, their implications on competition, consumer choice, and market access cannot be overlooked. It is imperative for regulators, industry stakeholders, and legal professionals to scrutinize these agreements within the context of local and international laws to ensure they do not unfairly hinder competition or disadvantage consumers. As the global entertainment industry continues to evolve, striking a balance between business interests and fair competition will remain a challenging yet essential endeavor.


Embracing Inclusivity: The Legal Imperative of Using Gender-Neutral Terms in the Workplace

Embracing Inclusivity: The Legal Imperative of Using Gender-Neutral Terms in the Workplace

Embracing Inclusivity: The Legal Imperative of Using Gender-Neutral Terms in the Workplace



In recent years, the workplace landscape has witnessed a significant shift towards inclusivity and diversity. As we celebrate International Women’s Day, it is crucial to recognize the importance of language in fostering an inclusive environment. The use of gender-neutral terms is a powerful tool in promoting equality and respect for all employees, regardless of their gender identity. This article explores the legal implications and benefits of implementing gender-neutral language in the workplace, emphasizing the significance of this practice on International Women’s Day.

The Legal Framework

Various jurisdictions have recognized the importance of promoting gender equality and preventing discrimination in the workplace. Laws and regulations around the world are evolving to reflect these values. Employers are increasingly obligated to create a working environment that is free from gender bias and discrimination. Failure to do so can result in legal consequences, ranging from fines to lawsuits.

The Equality Act in the United States, for example, prohibits discrimination based on sex, including gender identity and sexual orientation, in employment. Similarly, the European Union has enacted directives requiring member states to ensure equal treatment for men and women in the workplace. These legal frameworks underscore the need for employers to adopt inclusive language practices, including the use of gender-neutral terms.

Promoting Inclusive Language

Using gender-neutral terms in the workplace is not just a legal obligation; it is a reflection of an organization’s commitment to fostering a culture of respect and equality. Gender-neutral language avoids reinforcing traditional gender stereotypes and promotes an environment where all individuals feel valued and included.

  1. Job Titles and Descriptions

One area where gender-neutral language can be easily implemented is in job titles and descriptions. Instead of using terms like “salesman” or “waitress,” organizations can opt for gender-neutral alternatives such as “sales representative” or “server.” This simple change helps break down gender stereotypes and ensures that all employees, regardless of gender, feel represented and respected.

  1. Pronouns and Salutations

Addressing individuals by their preferred pronouns is a fundamental aspect of creating an inclusive workplace. Employers should encourage the use of gender-neutral pronouns like “they/them” and avoid making assumptions based on appearance. Additionally, using gender-neutral salutations, such as “Dear colleagues” instead of “Dear Sirs” or “Dear Madam,” fosters a more inclusive and respectful workplace environment.

  1. Policies and Documentation

Reviewing and updating company policies and documentation is another critical step in promoting gender-neutral language. Employee handbooks, codes of conduct, and other official documents should be revised to ensure they use inclusive language. This not only aligns with legal requirements but also sends a powerful message about the organization’s commitment to equality.

Benefits of Gender-Neutral Language

Beyond legal compliance, embracing gender-neutral language in the workplace has numerous benefits for both employees and organizations.

  1. Improved Workplace Morale

Creating a workplace where all employees feel respected and acknowledged contributes to higher morale. When individuals see their identity acknowledged and valued, they are more likely to engage actively in their work and contribute positively to the organizational culture.

  1. Attraction and Retention of Talent

In a competitive job market, organizations that prioritize inclusivity are more likely to attract and retain top talent. Job seekers increasingly consider an employer’s commitment to diversity and inclusion when making career decisions. By adopting gender-neutral language, organizations signal their dedication to creating an environment where everyone can thrive.

  1. Enhanced Innovation and Creativity

Diverse and inclusive teams are known to be more innovative and creative. By embracing gender-neutral language, organizations foster a culture that encourages individuals from diverse backgrounds to contribute their unique perspectives and ideas. This diversity of thought can lead to more innovative solutions and better business outcomes.


In the contemporary corporate landscape, the imperative for organizations extends beyond mere diversity to the more nuanced realm of inclusivity, particularly when viewed through the lens of gender neutrality. While diversity strives for representation across various demographic categories, including gender, it often falls short in fostering an environment that is truly inclusive. Diversity can inadvertently become a numbers game, emphasizing headcounts and surface-level representation without addressing the underlying power structures and cultural dynamics. Inclusivity, on the other hand, transcends numerical metrics and embodies a commitment to creating a workplace culture where individuals, regardless of gender, feel valued, heard, and authentically included.

Inclusive practices go beyond acknowledging diversity to actively dismantling systemic barriers. It involves creating environments where all genders are not only present but are empowered to contribute meaningfully, irrespective of societal expectations. This approach requires organizations to examine and revamp their structures, policies, and communication strategies to ensure they reflect a commitment to equity. True inclusivity recognizes that fostering a sense of belonging and understanding involves accommodating diverse gender identities, dismantling gender-specific titles, and reimagining traditional roles to be more gender-neutral.

In conclusion, the evolution from diversity to inclusivity signifies a deeper commitment to dismantling discriminatory practices and fostering an environment where every individual, irrespective of gender, feels seen, heard, and valued. Corporations must recognize that embracing gender neutrality is a crucial step towards creating workplaces where inclusivity is not just a buzzword but a lived reality, contributing to a more equitable and dynamic organizational culture.


Private Mergers and Fast Track Acquisitions of Startups: A Detailed Guide

Private Mergers and Fast Track Acquisitions of Startups: A Detailed Guide

Private Mergers and Fast Track Acquisitions of Startups: A Detailed Guide


(The views expressed here are not to be considered as legal opinion. You may not rely on this article as legal advice. You should reach out to me (chetana@legalcornerllp.com) so as to get legal advice specific to your business needs).

Private Mergers and Acquisitions (Private M&A) stand at the intersection of law and commerce, driving significant change and innovation in the corporate world. These transactions involve the sale or purchase of private companies, not publicly traded on stock exchanges, and they play a pivotal role in reshaping industries, fostering growth, and enabling business expansion. Understanding the nuances of Private M&A is essential for corporate lawyers as they navigate the dynamic landscape of the business world. 

Significance of Private Mergers & Acquisitions (M&A) in the Corporate World: 

Private M&A is not just a financial transaction; it’s a strategic move that can transform the fortunes of both acquiring and target companies. The significance of Private M&A in the corporate world is multifaceted: 

Expansion and Diversification: Companies use Private M&A to expand their operations into new markets or diversify their existing portfolios. This strategic growth allows corporations to capitalize on synergies, increase market share, and achieve economies of scale.  

Access to Innovation: In today’s fast-paced business environment, startups often represent innovation hubs. Acquiring startups can provide established companies access to cutting-edge technologies, intellectual property, and fresh talent. 

Competitive Advantage: Private M&A can create a competitive edge by consolidating resources, eliminating rivals, and securing valuable assets. It can also serve as a defensive move to prevent competitors from gaining the upper hand. 

Wealth Creation: For business owners and entrepreneurs, Private M&A can be a vehicle for wealth creation. It allows them to exit their ventures while realizing the value they’ve built over the years. 

Job Creation: Successful Private M&A transactions can lead to job creation, investment, and economic growth, benefiting the local and global workforce. 


The Increasing Trend of Fast-Track Acquisitions, Especially Targeting Startups: 

The corporate world is witnessing a notable surge in the trend of fast-track acquisitions, with startups emerging as prime targets. Several factors contribute to this phenomenon: 

Agility and Innovation: Startups are known for their agility and innovative spirit. Fast-track acquisitions of startups allow larger corporations to swiftly incorporate these attributes into their existing structures. 

Time-to-Market: In a highly competitive environment, reducing time-to-market is crucial. Fast-track acquisitions expedite the process, enabling companies to seize opportunities and stay ahead of the curve. 

Tech-Driven Disruption: With technology at the forefront, industries face rapid disruption. Startups are often disruptors themselves. Acquiring them quickly can help established companies adapt to market changes more effectively. 

Access to Niche Markets: Startups often operate in niche markets or cater to specific customer segments. Fast-track acquisitions can provide immediate access to these markets, saving time and resources. 

Talent Acquisition: Beyond products and technology, startups offer access to a pool of skilled and motivated talent. Fast acquisitions help secure these resources, ensuring a seamless integration. 

Importance of Understanding Private M&A from a Corporate Legal Perspective: 

For the clients of corporate lawyers, understanding Private M&A and fast-track acquisitions, especially when involving startups, is of paramount importance. Here’s why: 

Legal Complexity: M&A transactions are legally intricate. They involve due diligence, negotiations, contract drafting, regulatory compliance, and dispute resolution. A misstep can lead to legal and financial consequences.  

Risk Mitigation: Lawyers play a crucial role in identifying and mitigating risks associated with M&A. Understanding the unique aspects of startups, including intellectual property and equity structures, is vital. 

Deal Structuring: Lawyers help structure M&A deals to align with the client’s objectives. This includes determining the purchase price, assets, liabilities, and post-acquisition operations. 

Regulatory Compliance: Navigating the regulatory landscape is critical. Corporate lawyers ensure that transactions comply with Indian Company Law and other relevant regulations. 

Protection of Interests: Lawyers protect the interests of their clients in M&A, whether they are buyers or sellers, by negotiating favourable terms and safeguarding assets. 


The Burgeoning Startup Ecosystem in India: 

The startup landscape in India has witnessed a remarkable transformation in recent years. It’s characterized by: 

Entrepreneurial Spirit: India has seen a surge in entrepreneurial zeal, with a growing number of individuals venturing into various sectors, from technology to e-commerce and beyond. 

Government Initiatives: The Indian government has introduced initiatives like “Startup India” to promote entrepreneurship, ease regulatory compliance, and provide funding opportunities, contributing to the growth of startups. 

Venture Capital Inflow: India has become a hotbed for venture capital investments, with both domestic and international investors keen on supporting promising startups.  

Tech Innovation: Startups are at the forefront of technological innovation, with many leveraging AI, blockchain, IoT, and other emerging technologies to create disruptive solutions. 

Why Startups Are Prime Targets for Private Mergers and fast-Track Acquisitions? 

Startups have become highly attractive targets for acquisitions due to several compelling reasons: 

Innovation and Technology: Startups often pioneer cutting-edge technologies and business models, making them desirable for established companies looking to stay competitive and evolve. 

Speed to Market: Acquiring a startup allows established corporations to expedite their entry into a specific market or industry niche, saving time and resources. 

Talent Pool: Startups typically employ a young and talented workforce, which can be a valuable asset for larger corporations seeking fresh perspectives and specialized skills. 

Market Disruption: Many startups disrupt traditional business models, and acquiring them can help incumbents stay ahead in a rapidly changing landscape. 

Product Portfolio Enhancement: Acquisitions enable established companies to diversify their product or service offerings, serving a wider range of customers. 

Innovative and Technological Aspects Driving These Acquisitions: 

Innovation and technology are at the core of startup acquisitions. These aspects drive the process for several reasons: 

Access to Intellectual Property: Many startups possess valuable intellectual property, such as patents, copyrights, and proprietary software, which can enhance a corporation’s product portfolio. 

Market Disruption: Startups often introduce disruptive technologies or business models that can reshape entire industries, making them attractive targets for acquisition. 

Data and Analytics: With data-driven decision-making becoming crucial, startups specializing in analytics, big data, and machine learning are in high demand. 

Customer Insights: Startups often have an in-depth understanding of specific customer segments, which can be used by acquiring companies to refine their marketing and product strategies. 

Incorporating Innovation: Acquiring startups allows established companies to incorporate innovation without the lengthy development process, positioning them as market leaders. 


Fast Track Acquisitions in Corporate Law: 

Fast-track acquisitions involve expeditious purchase or merger of companies, often requiring streamlined processes to meet business objectives promptly. Key points include: 

Rapid Timeline: These acquisitions are characterized by accelerated timelines, necessitating efficient legal procedures to meet tight schedules. 

Negotiation and Due Diligence: Negotiations and due diligence must be swift, focusing on essential aspects to ensure that critical information is not overlooked.  

Legal Framework: Corporate lawyers need to work within the legal framework to ensure that the transaction is conducted in accordance with all relevant laws and regulations. 


Legal Challenges and Due Diligence for Quick Acquisitions: 

Fast-track acquisitions present specific legal challenges, including:  

Incomplete Due Diligence: Due diligence can be expedited but may not cover every detail. Lawyers must prioritize critical issues to mitigate risk. 

Regulatory Compliance: Fast acquisitions should still adhere to regulatory requirements, which can vary based on the industry and jurisdiction. 

Integration Risks: The speed of acquisition can lead to integration challenges, which lawyers must anticipate and address. 


Insights into How Corporate Lawyers Navigate M&A Challenges: 

Corporate lawyers play a pivotal role in ensuring that fast-track acquisitions proceed smoothly: 

Focused Due Diligence: Lawyers must conduct due diligence efficiently, identifying high-risk areas and addressing them promptly. 

Legal Expertise: Lawyers leverage their knowledge of corporate law and M&A regulations to facilitate quick acquisitions while safeguarding their clients’ interests. 

Agile Negotiation: Negotiation skills become crucial in expedited deals, with lawyers acting as key intermediaries. 

Rapid Response: Corporate lawyers maintain constant communication with their clients and counterparties to ensure any issues are resolved swiftly. 


Private Mergers & Fast-Track Acquisitions Case Studies: 

Disney’s Acquisition of Pixar (2006) 

Disney’s acquisition of Pixar, the renowned animation studio, for $7.4 billion is a prime example of a successful Private M&A deal involving a startup. While Pixar had matured by this point, its innovative and creative culture aligned with the startup ethos. 

Legal Strategies: Disney’s legal team navigated complex intellectual property issues, ensuring that the valuable characters and technology developed by Pixar would seamlessly integrate with Disney’s existing portfolio. The deal included a unique arrangement with key creative leaders. 

Challenges: Ensuring a smooth transition of creative talent and addressing intellectual property rights were significant legal challenges. Maintaining Pixar’s culture and innovation post-acquisition was another critical aspect. 


Microsoft’s Acquisition of LinkedIn (2016) 

Microsoft’s acquisition of LinkedIn for $26.2 billion exemplifies Private M&A in the tech sector. LinkedIn, a professional networking platform, had grown into a prominent startup with a vast user base. 

Legal Strategies: The legal team at Microsoft had to consider data privacy and regulatory issues concerning user data. They focused on integrating LinkedIn’s services with Microsoft’s suite of products while respecting the platform’s unique nature. 

Challenges: Addressing data privacy concerns and obtaining regulatory approvals were substantial challenges. Ensuring a smooth transition for LinkedIn’s user base while aligning it with Microsoft’s business goals was a complex task. 

Uber’s Acquisition of Postmates (2020)  

Uber’s acquisition of Postmates, a food delivery startup, for $2.65 billion illustrates the role of Private M&A in the fast-growing gig economy and delivery sector. 

Legal Strategies: Uber’s legal team worked on regulatory compliance, as the acquisition involved merging two prominent food delivery platforms. They also negotiated terms to incorporate Postmates’ assets and technology seamlessly. 

Challenges: Addressing regulatory concerns, competition issues, and potential antitrust scrutiny posed challenges in this acquisition. Uber had to ensure a smooth transition for Postmates’ users and delivery partners. 


Best Ways to Approach Private M&A Challenges:  

In the context of Private M&A, corporate lawyers should take away the following key points: 

Holistic Approach: Private M&A involves not only legal intricacies but also business strategies and cultural integration. Corporate lawyers should collaborate closely with their clients to align legal strategies with business objectives. 

Regulatory Expertise: Staying well-versed in the regulatory landscape is essential, especially in cross-border or industry-specific deals. Being proactive in addressing regulatory challenges can save time and resources. 

Cultural Considerations: Startups often have unique cultures and innovation-driven environments. Preserving these cultures post-acquisition can be challenging but crucial for the success of the deal. 

Data Privacy Awareness: In the age of data-driven business models, understanding data privacy and compliance is paramount. Lawyers must ensure that sensitive user data is handled appropriately in acquisitions. 

Constant Learning: The field of M&A evolves, and corporate lawyers must stay informed about legal developments and challenges. Continuing education and staying up-to-date with industry trends are vital. 

Proactivity: Encourage corporate lawyers to be proactive in adapting to the ever-evolving landscape of M&A. This includes embracing new technologies, understanding emerging business models, and being agile in the face of change. 


Private M&A deals, especially those involving startups, present a dynamic and challenging landscape for corporate lawyers. By taking a holistic approach, staying informed, and proactively adapting to changing circumstances, lawyers can successfully navigate these complex transactions, providing value to their clients and contributing to the growth of businesses in the ever-evolving corporate world. 


We are well experienced in handling legal issues pertinent to tax filings and wealth management. Please email me at chetana@legalcornerllp.com to get a nuanced understanding of your legal issues or if you wish to set up a free consultation. 


Deciphering The Digital Personal Data Protection Act, 2023

Deciphering The Digital Personal Data Protection Act, 2023

Deciphering The Digital Personal Data Protection Act, 2023


(The views expressed here are not to be considered as legal opinion. You may not rely on this article as legal advice. You should reach out to me (chetana@legalcornerllp.com) so as to get legal advice specific to your business needs).

On August 11, 2023, the “Digital Personal Data Protection Act” (the “Act”) came into being as the President officially enacted it after receiving approval from both houses of the Indian Parliament. This momentous development heralds the establishment of a distinct legal framework within India. It signifies a landmark achievement, representing India’s inaugural privacy legislation designed to protect the digital personal data of its citizens. This event shines a spotlight on the introduction and significance of the Data Protection Board of India, the core elements of the Act, and the responsibilities and privileges it imparts to both participatory organizations and individuals.


Citizens’ Rights for Personal Data Protection 

The Act will empower the citizens of the country as the data principal rights specifically allow: 

  • Right to information: Individuals will have the right to seek more information on how their data is processed, and the data fiduciary will make this information available in a clear and understandable way.
  • Right to correction and erasure: Individuals shall have the right to correct inaccurate/ incomplete data and erase data that is no longer required for processing.
  • Right to nominate: Individuals can nominate any other individual to exercise these rights in the event of death or incapacity.
  • Right to grievance redressal: Individuals shall have the right to use readily available means of registering grievances with a data fiduciary.

Key Provisions of The Digital Personal Data Protection Act, 2023

Applicability: If digital personal data is processed in India and is either (i) gathered online or (ii) collected offline and converted to digital form, the Act is applicable. If processing is done to provide goods or services in India, it also applies to processing done outside of India. Any information on a person who may be identified from or in connection with that information is referred to as personal data. The term “processing” refers to any fully or partially automated action taken on digitally stored personal data. It comprises gathering, keeping, using, and sharing. 

Consent: Only with the individual’s consent and for a legal purpose may personal data be used. Before requesting consent, notice must be given. Information about the personal data to be gathered and the processing goal should be included in the notice. The ability to withdraw consent is always available. For “legitimate uses”, which include (i) the specific purpose for which data has been willingly submitted by an individual, (ii) the government’s supply of a benefit or service, (iii) a medical emergency, and (iv) employment, consent won’t be necessary. The parent or the legal guardian must give consent on behalf of minors under the age of 18. 

Rights and duties of data principal: A person whose data is being processed (the “data principal”) is entitled to the following rights: (i) information about processing; (ii) deletion of personal data; (iii) designating a substitute for themselves to exercise rights in the case of death or incapacity; and (iv) grievance redressal. Certain obligations will fall on data principals. They may not (i) file a fictitious or baseless complaint, (ii) provide any false information, or (iii) impersonate another individual in certain circumstances. Duty violations are penalized by fines of up to Rs 10,000. 

Obligations of data fiduciaries: The entity responsible for deciding the purpose and method of processing, or “data fiduciary,” is required to (i) take reasonable steps to ensure the accuracy and completeness of the data; (ii) put in place reasonable security measures to prevent a data breach; (iii) notify the Data Protection Board of India and any affected individuals in the event of a breach; and (iv) erase personal data as soon as the purpose has been satisfied and retention is no longer required for legal purposes (storage limitation). Government organizations are exempt from storage restrictions and the data principal’s right to erasure. 

Exemptions: In certain circumstances, the rights of the data principal and the duties of the data fiduciaries (aside from data security) do not apply. These consists of (i) crime prevention and investigation, and (ii) the upholding of legal rights or claims. Certain activities may be exempted by the central government from the Act’s application through notification. These consist of (i) processing by government agencies for the sake of state security and public order, and (ii) gathering information for research, archiving, or statistical purposes. 

Data Protection Board of India: The Data Protection Board of India will be established by the central government. The Board’s main duties include (i) enforcing penalties for noncompliance, (ii) directing data fiduciaries to take appropriate action in the event of a data breach, and (iii) listening to grievances brought forth by impacted parties. Members of the board will be appointed for two years with the possibility of reappointment. The number of Board members and the procedure for choosing them will be specified by the central government. 

Penalties: Penalties for various offenses are outlined in the schedule to the Act, including up to (i) Rs 200 crore for failing to fulfill obligations to children and (ii) Rs 250 crore for failing to take security precautions to prevent data breaches. The Board will impose penalties following an investigation. 

Importance of The Digital Personal Data Protection Act, 2023 

The enactment of the Digital Personal Data Protection Act of 2023 in India marks a significant milestone in the realm of data privacy and protection. This legislation not only establishes a robust legal framework but also underscores the nation’s commitment to safeguarding the personal data of its citizens. With its comprehensive provisions, the Act empowers individuals by granting them certain fundamental rights in the digital landscape. 

Under this Act, citizens are endowed with crucial rights that give them control over their personal data. These rights include the right to seek information about how their data is processed, the right to rectify inaccurate or incomplete data, and the right to erase data that is no longer necessary for processing. Furthermore, individuals can nominate trusted representatives to act on their behalf in case of incapacity or demise, ensuring the continued protection of their data. The Act also facilitates the grievance redressal process, allowing individuals to voice their concerns and seek resolution through accessible means. 

Consent plays a pivotal role in data processing under this legislation. Personal data can only be processed with the individual’s explicit consent and for a lawful purpose. The Act mandates the provision of prior notice to individuals, detailing the data to be collected and the purpose of processing. Importantly, individuals have the right to withdraw their consent at any time. However, there are exceptions for legitimate uses, such as data submitted voluntarily, government services, medical emergencies, and employment, where consent may not be required. For minors under the age of 18, parental or legal guardian consent is mandatory. 

In conclusion, the Digital Personal Data Protection Act of 2023 ushers in India’s new era of data protection, compelling organizations to safeguard sensitive data with the utmost diligence. Compliance with this legislation is not only a legal obligation but also a moral imperative, as it upholds the fundamental rights of individuals in an increasingly digitized world. This Act underscores India’s commitment to data privacy and is a significant step towards ensuring the security and integrity of personal information for its citizens. 


We are well experienced in handling legal issues pertinent to tax filings and wealth management. Please email me at chetana@legalcornerllp.com to get a nuanced understanding of your legal issues or if you wish to set up a free consultation.